The Cardiff University Traumatic Stress Research Group publishes its research in scientific journals. This page highlights some recent publications from the Group.

International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ)



Dr Neil Roberts and Professor Jonathan Bisson are two of the four authors who originally developed the ITQ.  They have worked with an international group of collaborators to validate it and the ITQ is now accepted as the gold standard self report measure for ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD.  The ITQ is a brief, simply-worded measure that is freely available in the public domain to all interested parties: Cloitre, M., Shevlin, M., Brewin, C., Bisson, J., Roberts, N., Maercker, A., Karatzias, T. and Hyland, P. (2018). The International Trauma Questionnaire: development of a self-report measure of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.




  • Karatzias T, Murphy P, Cloitre M, Bisson J, Roberts N, Shevlin M, et al. (In Press).  Psychological interventions for ICD-11 Complex PTSD symptoms: Systematic review and meta-analysis.  Psychological Medicine.


  • Shevlin M, Hyland P, Murphy S, Roberts B, Bisson J, McElroy, E.  (2019). ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD: structural validation using network analysis. World Psychiatry.


  • Simon N, Roberts NP, Lewis CE, van Gelderen M, Bisson JI.  (2019). Associations between perceived social support, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complex PTSD (CPTSD): implications for treatment. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), article number: 1573129.


  • Knefel M, Lueger-Schuster B, Bisson J, Karatzias T, Kazlauskas, E, Roberts NP. (2019).  A Cross-Cultural Comparison of ICD-11 Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Networks in Austria, the United Kingdom, and Lithuania Journal of Traumatic Stress,


  • Lewis C, Roberts NP, Bethell A, Robertson L, Bisson JI. (2018). Internet-based cognitive and behavioural therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults.  Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12(12).  DOI: 10.1002/14651858.cd011710.pub2.



  • Gibson JAG, Ackling E, Bisson JI, Dobbs TD, Whitaker IS. (2018).  The association of affective disorders and facial scarring: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 239, 1-10.


  • Karatzias T, Hyland P, Bradley A, Fyvie C, Logan K, Easton P, Thomas J, Philips S, Bisson J, Roberts N, Cloitre M, Shevlin M. (2018). Is self-compassion a worthwhile therapeutic target for ICD-11 Complex PTSD (CPTSD)? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 10.1017/S1352465818000577.


  • Thompson C, Vidgen A, Roberts NP (2018). Psychological Interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Clinical Psychology Review. 63, 66-79. 10.1016/j.cpr.2018.06.006


  • Nollett N, Lewis C, Kitchiner N, Roberts N, Addison K, Brookes-Howell L, Cosgrove S, Cullen K, Ehlers A, Heke S, Kelson M, Lovell K, Madden K, McEwan K, McNamara R, Phillips C, Pickles T, Simon N, Bisson J (2018). Pragmatic RAndomised controlled trial of a Trauma-Focused Guided Self-Help Programme versus InDividual Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (RAPID): Trial Protocol. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s12888-018-1665-3.


  • Karatzias T, Shevlin M, Hyland P, Brewin C, Cloitre M, Bradley A, Kitchiner N, Jumbe S, Bisson J, Roberts N (2018). The role of negative cognitions, emotion regulation strategies and attachment style in Complex PTSD (CPTSD): Implications for new and existing therapies.  British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 177-185.


  • Ben-Ezra M, Karatzias T, Hyland P, Brewin CR, Cloitre M, Bisson JI, Roberts NP, Lueger-Schuster B, Shevlin M. (2018). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD) as per ICD-11 Proposals: A Population Study in Israel. Depression and Anxiety, 35, 264-274.

  • Hoare T, Vidgen A, Roberts N. (2018). In their own words: a synthesis of the qualitative research on the experiences of adults seeking asylum. A systematic review of qualitative findings in forced migration. Medicine, Conflict & Survival. 33:4, 273-298, 10.1080/13623699.2017.1419902


  • Karatzias T, Cloitre M, Maercker A, Kazlauskas E, Shevlin M, Hyland P, Bisson JI, Roberts NP, Brewin CR. (2018). PTSD Complex PTSD: ICD -11 Updates on Concept and Measurement in the UK, USA, Germany and Lithuania. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(sup7), article number: 1418103.


  • Shevlin M, Hyland P, Vallières F, Bisson J, Makhashvili N, Javakhishvili J, Shpiker M, Roberts B. (2018). A comparison of DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence, comorbidity and disability: an analysis of the Ukrainian Internally Displaced Person's Mental Health Survey. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 137, 138-147.


  • Shevlin M, Brewin CR, Cloitre M, Bisson JI, Roberts NP, Hyland P. (2018). A Psychometric Assessment of Disturbances in Self-Organization Symptom Indicators for ICD-11 Complex PTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9(1), article number: 1419749.


  • Lewis C, Raisanen L, Bisson JI, Jones I, Zammit S (2017). Trauma exposure and undetected post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Adults with a Mental Disorder.  Depression and Anxiety, 35, 178-184.


  • Zammit S, Lewis C, Dawson S, Colley H, McCann H, Piekarski A, Rockliff, Bisson J (2018). A systematic review of undetected post-traumatic stress disorder in secondary care mental health services.  British Journal of Psychiatry, 212, 11-18.


  • Schnyder U, Schäfer I, Aakvaag HF, Ajdukovic D, Bakker A, Bisson JI, et al. (2017) The global collaboration on traumatic stress, European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8:sup7, 1403257, DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2017.1403257


  • Hyland P, Shevlin M, Brewin CR, Cloitre M, Downes AJ, Jumbe S, Karatzias T, Bisson JI, Roberts NP (2017). Validation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire.  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1–10.  DOI: 10.1111/acps.12771


  • Lewis CE, Farwell D, Groves V, Kitchiner N, Roberts N, Vick T, Bisson J (2017).  Internet-based guided self-help for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): randomised controlled trial. Depression and Anxiety, 34, 555-565.


  • Duncan L, Ratanatharathorn A, Aiello A, Almli L, Amstadter A, Koch A, Baker D, Beckham J, Bierut L, Bisson J, et al (2017).  Largest GWAS of PTSD (N=20,070) Yields Genetic Overlap with Schizophrenia and Sex Differences in Heritability. Molecular Psychiatry, Doi:10.1038/mp.2017.77.


  • Shevlin M, Hyland P, Karatzias T, Bisson JI, Roberts NP (2017).  Examining the Disconnect Between Psychometric Models and Clinical Reality of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.  Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 54-59.


  • Karatzias T, Shevlin M, Fyvie C, Hyland P, Efthymiadou E, Wilson D, Roberts N, Bisson JI, Brewin CR, Cloitre M (2017). Evidence of distinct profiles of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) based on the new ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ). Journal of Affective Disorders, 207, 181–187.


  • Shevlin M, Hyland P, Karatzias T, Fyvie C, Roberts N, Bisson JI, Brewin CR, Cloitre M (2017). . Alternative Models of Disorders of Traumatic Stress Based on the New ICD-11 Proposals.  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 135, 419-428.


  • Karatzias T, Shevlin M, Fyvie C, Hyland P, Efthymiadou E, Wilson D, Roberts N, Bisson JI, Brewin CR, Cloitre M (2016). An initial psychometric assessment of an ICD-11 based measure of PTSD and complex PTSD (ICD-TQ): Evidence of construct validity.  Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 44, 73-79.


  • Perkins BL, Garlick R, Smart J, Wren J, Kennedy J, Stephens P, Tudor G, Ford DV. (2016). The Life Science Exchange: A case study of a sectoral and sub-sectoral knowledge exchange programme.
 Health Research Policy and Systems, 14, 32. doi: 10.1186/s12961-016-0105-4.


  • Roberts NP, Roberts PA, Jones N, Bisson JI (2016).  Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid substance use disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD010204.  DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010204.pub2.


  • Saxon L, Makhashvili N, Chikovani I, Seguin M, McKee M, Patel V, Bisson J, Roberts B (2016). Coping strategies and mental health outcomes of conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 26, 276-286.


  • Bisson JI, Cosgrove S, Lewis C, Roberts NP (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder (Clinical Review).  British Medical Journal, 351, h6161.



  • Dückers MLA, Witteveen AB, Bisson JI, Olff  (2015). The association between disaster vulnerability and post-disaster psychosocial service delivery across Europe. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 44, 470-479.


  • Roberts NP, Roberts PA, Jones N, Bisson JI (2015). Psychological Interventions for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Substance Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 38, 25-38.

  • Comellas RM, Makhashvili N, Chikovani I, McKee M, Patel V, Bisson J, Rukhadze N, Roberts B (2015). Patterns of somatic distress among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 78, 466-71.


  • Kitchiner N, Bisson J (2015). Phase 1 development of an optimal integrated care pathway for veterans discharged from the armed forces.  Military Medicine, 180, 766-773.


  • Hoskins M, Pearce J, Bethell A, Dankova L, Barbui C, Tol WA, van Ommeren M, de Jong J, Seedat S, Chen H, Bisson JI (2015). Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.  British Journal of Psychiatry, 206, 93-100.


  • Sijbrandij M, Kleiboer A, Bisson JI, Barbui C, Cuijpers P (2015).  Pharmacological prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Lancet Psychiatry, 2, 413-421.​

  • Tol WA, Barbui C, Bisson J, Cohen J, Hijazi Z, Jones L, de Jong JTVM, Magrini N, Omigbodun O, Seedat S, Silove D, Souza R, Sumathipala A, Vijayakumar L, Weissbecker I, Zatzick D, van Ommeren M (2014).  World Health Organization Guidelines for Management of Acute Stress, PTSD, and Bereavement: Key Challenges on the Road Ahead. PLoS Med, 11(12), e1001769. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001769.


  • Makhashvili N, Chikovani I, McKee M, Patel V, Bisson J, Rukhadze N, Roberts B (2014).  Mental disorders and their impact on disability among internally displaced persons and returnees in Georgia.  Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 509-518.


  • White J, Pearce J, Morrison S, Dunstan F, Bisson JI, Fone DL. (2015) Risk of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder following Traumatic Events in a Community Sample. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 24, 249-257.


  • Hubers A, van Duijn E, Roos R, Craufurd D, Rickards H, Landwehrmeyer B, van der Mast R, Giltay E, Bisson J, et al. (2013).  Suicidal ideation in a European Huntington's disease population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 248-258.


  • Bisson JI. (2014) Trauma and memory - in 100 words. British Journal of Psychiatry, 204, 494.


  • Bisson JI (2014).  Early responding to traumatic events.  British Journal of Psychiatry, 204, 329-330.

Other Publications


1.    ISTSS (2018). ISTSS PTSD Prevention and Treatment Guidelines Methodology and Recommendations -


2.    ISTSS (2018). Position Paper on Complex PTSD in Adults - treatment-guidelines.aspx


3.    ISTSS (2018). Position Paper on Complex PTSD in Children and Adolescents -


4.    Williams R, Bisson J, Kemp V. (2014) Principles for responding to people’s psychosocial and mental health needs after disasters. OP94. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.


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